Glossary

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Accommodations:

Changes made in school to enable students with a disability to learn without affecting the content of what they are learning.

ADHD coach:

A professional trained to help patients with ADHD get past obstacles and reach their goals.

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD):

A neurobehavioral disorder that is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interferes with functioning and development.

Behavior therapy:

A management program that teaches people how to replace negative behaviors with positive behaviors.

Clinical social worker:

A social worker who has been trained to diagnose and treat mental, behavioral, and emotional issues.

Free appropriate public education (FAPE):

Education that's free to parents, caregivers, and children; generally provided in public school; and appropriate for eligible children with disabilities. FAPE is mandated by both IDEA and Section 504.

Hyperactivity:

Behavior characterized by a higher-than-normal activity level.

Impulsivity:

Behavior characterized by sudden action without thinking about the consequences.

Inattention:

Behavior characterized by lack of attention.

Individualized education program (IEP):

A written agreement, mandated by IDEA, between parent and school that states the child's current academic and functional performance, formal learning accommodations, and measurable annual goals for what the child is supposed to achieve. As a child gets older, he or she plays a more direct role in shaping this conversation.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA):

A federal civil rights law that requires schools that receive funds from the US government to provide free appropriate public education for children with disabilities who qualify for formal learning accommodations.

Least restrictive environment (LRE):

A principle of IDEA and Section 504 that encourages keeping children in the regular classroom with modifications and support and placing them in special classrooms only if necessary.

Neurobehavioral:

Related to the relationship between the brain and behavior.

Neurologist:

A health care professional trained to diagnose and manage brain disorders.

Neuropsychologist:

A health care professional trained in studying how the brain affects behavior.

Neurotransmitter:

A brain chemical used to send signals within the nervous system.

Occupational therapist:

A health care professional who provides therapy centered on using the senses (eg, sight, hearing, touch).

Prefrontal cortex:

Part of the brain that plays a role in controlling attention, behavior, judgment, and emotion.

Psychologist:

A health care professional trained in the study of behavior.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504):

A federal civil rights law that prohibits schools that receive funds from the US government from discriminating against persons with disabilities and requires them to provide these children with free appropriate public education.